Is this a snowclone? I can’t find it in the database or on the queue. It’s certainly a different use of ‘believe’ than “I don’t believe in unicorns”. In this special use of believe, the speaker does in fact believe X exists, but they disagree with it in some way.
Google results for “I don’t believe in”:
a) I Don't Believe In Failure.
X = deverbal nominal
While X is almost always a noun, it can be a VP as in (d), and it’s often an eventive nominal as in (e) or a deverbal nominal as in (a).